Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are common and are mainly due to bacterial infection. The predominant organisms include
Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella and Proteus. Cystitis is a bladder infection. Symptoms of cystitis include frequent urgent burning or painful voiding of small volumes of urine. Nocturia, and often low back pain is common.
Urinary tract infection s and cystitis occur predominantly in women. Isolated UTIs occur in 30% of all women; recurrent UTIs occur in 60% of cases, 95% of which are due to exogenous reinfection.

Risk Factors:
Major causative factors and risk factors that can contribute to the incidence of UTI/cystitis include:
Poor hygiene
Diabetes mellitus
Changes in sexual activity: partner, frequency, intensity
Use of irritant chemicals (detergents, spermicides)
Use of I rritant contraceptive devices (diaphragm)
Use of oral contraceptives
Heavy antibiotic use
Urinary tract abnormality or obstruction (tumour , calculi, stricture, inability to empty bladder completely)
Previous UTIs less than 6 months apart
Urethral or bladder catheterisation
Medications such as immunosuppressants, and corticosteroids

Symptoms & Signs:
Common signs and symptoms of UTI/cystitis include:
Painful urination, with a burning sensation, frequency, and urgency
Blood or pus in urine
Pain or cramping in the lower abdomen
Chills, fever (fever may be the only symptom in infants and children)
Strong-smelling urine