Definition:
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, resulting in acceleration of the body’s metabolic rate: hyperthyroidism causes the body's cells to burn fuel so rapidly that they waste much of it in the form of heat. The ailment varies in severity. Most cases can be treated effectively with medication. Surgery may be necessary if conservative treatment fails. Left untreated, hyperthyroidism is potentially fatal. The condition can take three different forms:

Graves' Disease: appears as a goitre in the neck along with eye and skin changes. Graves' disease is an autoimmune condition. It stems from an antibody that stimulates the thyroid to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. In the process, the antibody overwhelms the usual thyroid-stimulating hormone. The stimulation causes the thyroid to grow, creating a goitre.

Toxic Nodular Goitre: one or more nodules (benign tumours) in the thyroid produce an excess of thyroid hormone.

Secondary Hyperthyroidism: in this condition the pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid to overproduce thyroid hormones.

Risk factors:
Major risk factors that can contribute to the incidence of hyperthyroidism include the following:
• Age between 20 and 40 years
• Stress
• Pregnancy
• In newborns, a mother with Graves' disease
• Intestinal dysbiosis
• Antibiotic over-usage
• Family history of thyroid condition

Signs and Symptoms:
Common signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
• Tachycardia, arrhythmia and/or palpitations
• Hypertension
• Swelling at the base of the neck
• Moist skin and increased perspiration
• Shakiness and tremor
• Nervousness
• Confusion
• Increased appetite accompanied by weight loss
• Difficulty sleeping
• Swollen, reddened, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos)
• Constant stare (infrequent blinking, lid retraction and lid lag)
• Sensitivity of eyes to light
• Raised, thickened skin over shins, dorsum of feet, back, hands, or even face
• Altered menses