Rhinitis and sinusitis are inflammatory disorders of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. Rhinitis is inflammation of the nasal membranes caused by infection or IgE-mediated allergic reaction to airborne allergens. It may also be due to non-allergic and non-infective (vasomotorrhinitis). Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses that causes impaired sinus mucociliary clearance and is also caused by either an upper respiratory tract infection (bacterial, viral or fungal) or allergies.

Aetiology /Causative factors and risk factors that can contribute to the incidence of rhinitis and sinusitis includethe following:
• Personal and/or family history of other allergies
• Exposure to second-hand smoke
• Frequent infections
• Immunodeficiency
• Anatomic abnormalities that narrow the ostiomeatal channels
• Cold air
• Strong odours
• Inhaled irritants
• Food allergy - intolerance

Common signs and symptoms of rhinitis and sinusitis include:
• Nasal obstruction, increased secretions, sneezing
• Itching of mucous membranes of nose, eyes, posterior pharynx, conjunctivae
• Sinus symptoms: headache, pressure behind the eyes , pain in the frontal area, tenderness over cheekbones, or toothache
• Ear infections
• Inflammation and oedema of nasal mucosa, purulent sinonasal secretion (yellow or green), or postnasal drip
• Cough or pharyngitis
• May be feverish
• Loss of smell
• General malaise