FATTY LIVER
Definition: It is normal for the liver to contain some fat, but if fat accounts for more than 10% of the liver’s weight, then liver function may be impaired and serious COmplications may develop. Fatty liver may develop into inflammation of the liver (steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic steatohepatisis (NASH) or Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)), scarring and hardening of the liver, and eventually, liver cirrhosis and liver failure.In developed countries, the incidence of fatty liver is 15-20% of the general population (much higher in obese individuals). Fatty liver is the most common cause of abnormal liver function tests in adults and children.

Commonly NAFLD is associated  with a high waist measurement (a marker of increased visceral adipose tissue) and is associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. Fat accumulates in the liver as excessive free fat fatty acids (triglycerides) from the diet and from adipose stores overflow and fats are eventually deposited in organs including the heart, liver, pancreas and muscle mass. Fat accumulation is referred to as lipotoxicity, as these tissues are rendered highly insulin resistant and unable to produce energy efficiently . In the case of the pancreas, lipotoxicity eventually lead to beta-cell failure and decreased insulin output. Fatty organs, especially fatty liver, are associated with increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT), dyslipidaemia (disordered cholesterol and triglyceride levels) and altered blood sugar metabolism, all hallmarks of metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

Aetiology/Common risk factors that to the incidence of fatty liver include:
• Diabetes mellitus
• Malnutrition, severely overweight
• Metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome
• Dietary factors; deficiency of protein, which high fat and high sugar
• Hazardous chemicals exposure (cleaning products, weed killers)
• Toxic mushrooms
• Chronic use of drugs (especially painkillers and cortisone)
• Infections, including intestinal bacterial overgrowth
• Lack of oxygen, insufficient physical activity
• Pregnancy: For an unknown reason and rarely, cirrhosis fat may appear at the end of pregnancy

Common signs and symptoms of fatty liver include:
• Enlarged liver
• Discomfort over the liver
• Weakness, fatigue, lethargy
• Confusion and poor concentration
• Gallstones composed of cholesterol and bile salts
• Adiposity, especially in the abdominal area
• Metabolic Syndrome
• Constipation
• Fatty foods cause indigestion
• Regurgitating bitter fluids
• Food and chemical allergies/intolerances
• Difficulty losing weight
• Elevated cholesterol and triglycerides
• Immunological disorders (e.g., allergies, frequent infections, increased inflammatory response in the body, autoimmunity.)
More severely: Fluid retention, muscle wasting, jaundice and liver failure.