Definition: Eczema (or dermatitis) refers to a group of chronic skin disorders that primarily involve the epidermis. This chronic, superficial inflammation of the skin is often seen in individuals with a family history of allergic rhinitis,asthma or atopic dermatitis.
• Contact eczema: localized rash where offen ding agent touched skin; caused by allergens, irritants,light, chemicals, perfumes, metals.
• Atopic eczema: this Type I allergic reaction is associated with the IgE antibody production and is most common in patients with a history of other allergic conditions (e.g., asthma, hay-fever).
• Seborrheic eczema: this chronic skin condition is associated with excessive seborrhoea production and greasy scales on the scalp, eyelids and/or other parts of the skin on face.
• Nummular eczema: chronic skin condition characterised by round red spots that crust and scale;accompanies dry skin in winter; often associated with emotional stress; usually found in people over the age of 35.
• Stasis eczema: this form of eczema develops over the lowerlegs and is associated with poor venous return (e.g. varicose veins). The skin turns brown and flakes and itches.
• Neurodermatitis: this term is used to describe eczematoid rashes that seem to have a major stress-related component.

Aetiology / Risk factors:
Major causative factors and risk factors that can contribute to the eczema include
• Family history of allergies
• Personal history of allergies
• Digestive disorders (e.g., hydrochloric acid deficiency)
• Dysbiosis and/or liver toxicity
• Exposure to environmental allergens and/or toxic compounds
• Nutritional deficiencies–especially EFA’s
• Excessive consumption of fruit–especially citrus fruits
• Stress or anxiety
• Lack of sleep
• Underlying emotional problems–especially compulsive behaviours.

Common signs and symptoms of eczema include the following:
• Dry, red, inflamed skin lesions that appear on face, neck, trunk and particularly flexures of elbows and knees.
• Itching and/or oozing and crusting of lesions.
• Blistering of skin, particularly on the hands and feet.
• Skin can become wet and weepy if it gets infected.
• Scaling of areas of skin that are scratched frequently—this is known as lichenification.