DIABETES 2

Definition: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was once called adult-onset diabetes, typically affecting individuals older than 40 years.Now, because the epidemic of obesity and inactivity in children, type 2 diabetes is occurring at younger and younger ages: it has been diagnosed in children as young as 2 years of age who have a family history of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is characterised by peripheral insulin resistance with an insulin-secretory defect that varies inseverity. For type 2 diabetes to develop, both defects must exist: All overweight individuals have insulin resistance, but only those with an inability to increase beta-cell production of insulin develop diabetes. In the progression from normal glucose tolerance to abnormal glucose tolerance, postprandial glucose levels first increase. Eventually, hepatic gluconeogenesis increases, resulting in fasting hyperglycaemia.

About 90% of patients who develop type 2 diabetes are obese. Because patients with type 2 diabetes retain the ability to secrete some endogenous insulin, those who are taking insulin do not develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) if they stop taking it for so me reason. Therefore, they are considered to require insulin but not to depend on insulin. Moreover, patients with type 2 diabetes often do not need treatment with oral antidiabetic medication or insulin if they lose weight.


Aetiology / Risk factors:
Major causative factors and risk factors that can contribute to the incidence of Cardiovascular–metabolic include the following:
• High calorie diet
• High glycaemic load diet
• High fat diet
• Lack of exercise
• Chronic stress
• Toxicity
• Hormonal imbalances
• Chronic inflammation

Signs/Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome include:

Cardiovascular:
• Hypertension
• Vascular disease
• Angina
• Previous heart attack/stroke
• Intermittent claudication

Skin:
• Acne
• Skin tags (cutaneous papillomas acrochordon)
• Skin cancers
• Male pattern (vertex) balding
• Acanthosis nigricans
Reproductive (Female):
• Early puberty
• Amenorrhoea
• Oligomenporrhoea
• Polycystic ovarian syndrome
• Infertility
• Low SHBG

Diet:
Carbohydrate cravings

Metabolic:
• Overweight
• Weight accumulates over the stomach
• History of failed weight loss attempts
• Diabetes

Sleep:
• Sleep apnoea
• Snoring
• Day time fatigue/sleepiness

Reproductive (Male):
• Erectile dysfunction
• Impotence
• Prostate cancer

Neurological/Pain
• Depression
• Tinnitus
• Migraines
• Headaches/Dizziness
• Myopia (short-sightedness)